The sea has always exerted a huge fascination on man: stories, legends, films, books have the blue giant as protagonist. Many remain enchanted watching the reflection of the water, then there are those who can't resist a dip; others, on…


Light in nature

Sunsets, rainbows, shades varying from blue to green in the sea and the immense range of colours of plants and animals are just a few examples of the rich variety of optical phenomena in nature. Our first experiences of light…


Blinded by light!

Lighting up the night brightly until it almost disappears is a great achievement in terms of progress and technology, but what are the real effects of the disappearance of darkness? When humans alter the levels of light naturally present in…


Fish are champions migrators

Migratory fish are true athletes: some of them swim thousands of kilometres during their migration from their birthplace to the places where they feed and reproduce. In order to complete their life cycle, they need free-flowing, unimpeded rivers. On their…


Recycling figures

World Recycling Day is celebrated on 18 April. Where do we stand in Italy? According to the 2021 report of the Foundation for Sustainable Development, Italy is increasingly differentiating and recycling waste. Let's give some figures, starting with packaging recycling:…


The thousand uses of lichens

Throughout history, humans have used lichens for a variety of purposes. The oldest evidence of lichen use dates back to the ancient Egyptians, who used some species to make bread flour and others for cosmetic and medicinal purposes. They also…


An indicator of environmental quality

The lichen-rich tundra has proved very useful for studying the spread of pollutants around the world: the wind carries pollutants everywhere, even distances of thousands of kilometres. Lichens are good bio-indicators, i.e. they are organisms that allow us to recognise…


Unusual vegetables

Distributed at all latitudes, lichens are able to conquer extreme biotopes, adapting to living in places where plants would find it difficult to survive: they overcome critical periods by rapidly going into dormant phases during which respiration and photosynthesis are…


Stephen Hawking, science’s brightest star

Stephen Hawking was a great man of science. His scientific interests ranged from cosmology to physics, from mathematics to artificial intelligence. In recent times he even took an interest in space exploration with the Breakthrough Starshot project to send miniature…

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