Nuclear fusion

Nuclear fusion is the process that since ancient times has used solar and star energy to activate fusion reactions between hydrogen nuclei.
Fusion reaction starts from very light nuclei that aggregate. By joining together, they become heavier and loaded with a great “binding energy”. For example, a mixture of hydrogen nuclei (1 proton), deuterium and tritium (1 proton and 1 or 2 neutrons) can trigger a reaction which, through various passages, leads to the creation of carbon nuclei.
In order to let the reaction occur, the two reacting particles must have a sufficient quantity of kinetic energy to overcome the repulsive barrier created by the electric charge of the nuclei. This means that it will be necessary to reach extremely high temperatures, where the matter is in plasma state. The most studied reaction, which is also the least difficult, is “deuterium plus tritium”, with a trigger temperature of 100 million degrees centigrade. Deuterium is an isotope (atom of an element with the same number of protons, but with a different number of neutrons) of hydrogen, whose nucleus is made up of a proton and a neutron. It is present in water with the proportion of 1 out of 7,000 atoms of normal hydrogen, therefore it cannot be depleted. Tritium is another hydrogen isotope, made up of a proton and two neutrons. It is radioactive, with a half-life of 12 years and it is produced by bombing lithium by means of neutrons. Indirectly, lithium is therefore the energy raw material.

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