A bit of history: nuclear

The instability of nuclei and the freeing of ionising radiation (each electromagnetic radiation capable of producing ionisation in atoms or molecules of the body it goes through, i.e. the ejection of an electron from the atomic structure with the ensuing creation of a pair of ions, positive and negative) is present naturally but it started being considered from the scientific viewpoint only on the occasion of the study of the x rays conducted by Roentgen in 1895. During the 20th century vital research was conducted leading to the atomic fission.
First of all, in 1934 Mr. and Mrs. Curie identified the first case of artificial radioactivity. In 1942, after a series of “home-made” experiments in the legendary Roman institute in Panisperna street, the Italian physic Enrico Fermi carried out the first fission experiment under controlled conditions. Thus, the first nuclear reactor was created at the University of Chicago. That research belonged to the effort made by the American scientists which three years after led them to manufacture and drop the first atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima (80,000 killed instantly).
After the world war, in 1954, the first electro-nuclear power plant – albeit moderately powerful (5 megawatt) – started operating in the Soviet Union. The first nuclear power plant aimed at the production of electric energy to be sold on the market dates back to 1956 and was built near Calder Hill, in England.
During the second half of the last century the production of electric energy from nuclear fuel increased up to 11% of the world energy production. In particular, at October of 2014, the world counted 436 operating nuclear power plants and 70 being built. In terms of percentage contribution of nuclear energy to the production of household electric energy, France is in the lead (76.1%) followed by Ukraine (45.4%), Korea (28.3%) and United Kingdom (19.5%).
The birth of nuclear energy, as a tangible source of energy can be dated back to the mid-Sixties when the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy was demonstrated. Development accelerated greatly initially, but subsequently there was a slowing down  due to  violent protests with regard to its safety, which led to increased financial difficulties caused by the delays in granting authorizations for operation of the plants by the National Authorities for safety. In some cases the Authorities imposed substantial changes in the operating plants, and even the total shutdown of some plants. The accidents at Three Mile Island (1979), Chernobyl (1986) and in the power plant in Fukushima in Japan (March 2011), revived controversies on the choice of nuclear energy. The last accident was by far the most dangerous, and for this reason the impact on public opinion was remarkable. In Italy, following a new popular referendum (after the referendum of 1987, following the accident in Chernobyl,  nuclear power plants in the Italian territory were shut down), in June 2011, nuclear power for the production of electricity was newly abandoned.

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