Many factors

Temperature also depends on many other factors such as altitude, the position of the emersed land and of the surrounding seas, exposure to the sun, vegetation covering the soil, prevailing winds, the characteristics of the land etc…
In particular, since it depends mainly on the  irradiation of the earth, temperature diminishes with altitude, with an average vertical gradient of about 0.6°C every 100 m higher you climb: it is for this reason that the higher the altitude, the lower the temperature.
The proximity of large masses of water, such as seas or big lakes, is also important: due to the fact that water is characterized by a greater thermal inertia, close to vast bodies of water the climate is milder in winter and cooler in summer. Marine currents, moreover, can contribute directly, by carrying masses of warm water to cold places and vice versa, thus modifying the local temperatures: just one example suffices for all – the effects of the warm Gulf Stream on the cold Atlantic coasts of North Europe.
The distance away from the sea, instead, has the effect of increasing the temperature range between summer, that is very hot, and winter, that is very cold, typical of continental areas far from the sea: an example is the Verkhojansk locality in Siberia where the greatest seasonal temperature range can be observed, with a temperature of – 68°C in winter and of + 30°C in summer.
Even the kind of soil and the vegetation covering it influence local temperature variations, depending on the so-called albedo, i.e. the capacity to reflect the light of the Sun. The albedo varies from 5% on the surface of the sea, to 5-15% in forests, to 15-20% in cultivated fields, to 50-70% on glaciers and 80-90% on fresh snow. The vegetation contributes to determining local temperature even by producing water vapour that absorbs the radiation in the infrared band.
Even the transparency of the air is an important factor: a minor transparency can prevent infrared radiation irradiated from the ground from dispersing, which determines an increase in the temperature, or, on the contrary, it can prevent solar radiation from reaching the ground, determining a decrease in temperature. The transparency of the air depends on its content of gases such as CO2, water vapour, polluting substances such as sulphur dioxide and sulphurous anhydride and on atmospheric dust.

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Facts