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earth

Soil erosion

Just like water, air and other natural elements, the soil may be considered a resource; it is, however, a non-renewable resource (FAO, 2015; APPA, 2012) – or a potentially renewable one if it is considered from a geological point of…

earth

Geothermal fields

Zones that are characterised by a high and anomalous heat flux are those where the release of energy from the ground is greater, however to be able to use this source a fundamental ingredient, together with hot rocks, is water.…

earth

Ice in caves

In high mountain or high latitude environments, many caves can contain ice deposits, at times even in great quantities. In winter, the most common cause of ice formation in caves is the freezing of water percolating through fractures and joints…

earth

Life at high temperature

Rocks embedded a few kilometers below the surface are an ideal habitat too: some microorganisms live in tiny interstitial spaces of  rocks which are 3,2 km beneath the subsoil and they are able to tolerate high pressure levels, radiation and…

earth

Mountains on the Earth

The different landscapes that we analysed in the previous section are distributed in the five continents of the Earth. Observing the Earth, it is possible to notice that most of emerged lands are occupied by mountains (76%), while plains only…

earth

The climate underground

Going down deep in the Earth’s crust, the temperatures increase gradually (about 3°C every 100 m): this phenomenon is well-known in mines, where very high temperatures are reached in the deep, and where the galleries have to be ventilated to…

earth

The most populated cities in the world

In the last 50 years the world population has passed from 2.5 billion to 6 billion, and estimates say that it should reach 8 billion in the year 2025. A consequence of this demographic growth was an intense urbanization and,…

earth

The most spectacular waterfalls

The highest waterfalls in the world are located in Venezuela. The famous Salto Angel is 979 metres high. The widest waterfall is in Asia, in Laos: it is the Khone waterfall and, although it is only 70 m high, it…

earth

Volcanic activity of Vesuvio

One of the most famous volcanic disasters was the eruption of Vesuvio in 79 A.D., which destroyed the cities of Ercolano and Pompei. The stages of the eruption were carefully described by Plinio il Grande: the eruption started with an…

 
 
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