Red sunsets

At dawn and at sunset, the sun’s radiation reaches the ground at a very low angle of incidence, therefore the sun’s rays must cross a thick layer of atmosphere, in particular its lower layers, those which are more dense with…



Tornado chasers

Tornadoes are one of the most violent and spectacular meteorological manifestations. They appear suddenly without any warning, they move rapidly leaving a trail of devastation and equally rapidly they disappear into thin air. Tornadoes are characteristic in the Southern part…



Exploring the air

In order to have a three-dimensional view of the atmosphere it is necessary to record observations at the higher altitudes, and not only at ground level. For this, special instruments are used to enable meteorological data collection at different altitudes.…



Meteorological satellites

Meteorological observations from satellites are at present the most avant-garde systems to collect data regarding the higher altitudes of the atmosphere, on a large scale. These recordings began in 1960, when the satellite TIROS.1 was launched. Experimental satellites, of the…



Weather over the Mediterranean Sea

The weather in the Mediterranean areas is generally associated with fair weather in summer (except occasional formation of storms) and rather uncertain weather in winter. In any case the changes in the weather in our regions are tied to the…



GOES meteorological satellites

The numerous civil and military satellites orbiting around us are currently able to observe practically every point of the planet. All the data collected by the various meteorological satellites converge in a worldwide observation network that enables the exchange of…



METEOSAT European satellites

The first European meteorological satellite was launched in November 1977, the first of the METEOSAT series. At present there are 4 European satellites in orbit: METEOSAT 8, 7, 6 and 5. METEOSAT 8 is the latest of the series and…


Radars in meteorology

Radar (acronym for radio detection and ranging) monitoring techniques  are used to record the position of objects of any size, from ships or planes to particles and molecules. The techniques were born during World War II for military purposes. In…



Astronauts in their bathing suits

As we have already seen, in the thermosphere the temperature increases as the distance from the Sun increases. At around 120 Km of height the temperature is 0°C, while at 300 Km it gets to 1000 °C. However we are…

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