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earth

Soil erosion

Just like water, air and other natural elements, the soil may be considered a resource; it is, however, a non-renewable resource (FAO, 2015; APPA, 2012) – or a potentially renewable one if it is considered from a geological point of…

earth

Volcanic eruptions

The activity of some volcanoes is characterized by violent explosions that break the magma into fragment of different size. Those bits of magma are launched high and then fall down at very high speed, like a burning cloud that hits…

earth

Different plains

In South America plains are different from North to South. Plains in the north are called llanos and they are dry lands in the dry season, while during the rainy periods they are covered by very high vegetation. More in…

earth

Geothermal fields

Zones that are characterised by a high and anomalous heat flux are those where the release of energy from the ground is greater, however to be able to use this source a fundamental ingredient, together with hot rocks, is water.…

earth

What are the hills?

A hill is a natural rise of the Earth’s surface. Generally, it is less than 600 metres high: it is lower than a mountain and has a less sharp shape. Some hills (so-called building hills) originated from the deposit of…

earth

Ice in caves

In high mountain or high latitude environments, many caves can contain ice deposits, at times even in great quantities. In winter, the most common cause of ice formation in caves is the freezing of water percolating through fractures and joints…

earth

Life at high temperature

Rocks embedded a few kilometers below the surface are an ideal habitat too: some microorganisms live in tiny interstitial spaces of  rocks which are 3,2 km beneath the subsoil and they are able to tolerate high pressure levels, radiation and…

earth

Mountains on the Earth

The different landscapes that we analysed in the previous section are distributed in the five continents of the Earth. Observing the Earth, it is possible to notice that most of emerged lands are occupied by mountains (76%), while plains only…

earth

The climate underground

Going down deep in the Earth’s crust, the temperatures increase gradually (about 3°C every 100 m): this phenomenon is well-known in mines, where very high temperatures are reached in the deep, and where the galleries have to be ventilated to…

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