ICE-CAPA perennial cover of ice and snow over an extensive portion of the earth’s surface. The largest ice caps are those in Antarctica and Greenland. Arctic Ocean ice is seasonal and in motion, and is not considered an ice cap.
IMMISSIONThe reception of material, such as pollutants, by the environment and from any source.
IMPACT FACTORFactor having power to produce alteration in an environmental system.
IMPERMEABILITYThe property of a material or soil that does not allow, or allows only with great difficulty, the movement or passage of water.
INCINERATIONIncineration is the process of high-temperature combustion (between 850°C and 1200°C) in the presence of oxygen. Incineration is utilized to destroy waste and the hazardous constituents thereof. Combustion of waste facilitates: - Conversion of waste into energy: 1 kg of municipal waste produces 600 Wh - Reduction of the volume of waste (by 90% of the initial volume) Incineration allows the complete destruction of hazardous organic substances (ex. PCBs, dioxins, halogenated organic compounds, solvents, etc.). Combustion exhaust gases are then treated and purified in a special section of the kiln itself (See also: flue gas purification).
INCINERATORA furnace, boiler, kiln, etc., for burning waste under controlled conditions.
INDEPENDENTAs used in the oil industry, usually refers to a nonintegrated producing company. The integrated company usually operates production, transportation, refining, and marketing facilities. Generally, the independent producer has operations only in the field of petroleum production.
INDEX FOSSILIndex fossils are commonly found fossils that are limited in time span. They help in dating other fossils. For example: trilobites were common during the Paleozoic, but not found before the Cambrian period. Ammonites were common during the Mesozoic Era, but not found after the Cretaceous period. Another example: the oldest-known ostracods (tiny freshwater and marine crustaceans (see)) are from the Cambrian period; they became widespread during the Ordovician and remain so.
INDOOR AIR POLLUTIONChemical, biological and physical contamination of indoor air. It may result in adverse health effects. In developing countries, the main source of indoor air pollution is biomass smoke which contains suspended particulate matter (SPM), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In industrialized countries, in addition to NO2, CO, and formaldehyde, radon, asbestos, mercury, human-made mineral fibres, volatile organic compounds, allergens, tobacco smoke, bacteria and viruses are the main contributors to indoor air pollution. (source: United Nations Statistics Division)
INDUSTRIAL DISCHARGEMaterials discharged from industrial operations or derived from manufacturing processes. Such unwanted materials are categorized under a variety of headings, such as liquid wastes, sludge, solid wastes, and hazardous wastes.
INDUSTRIAL GAS CUSTOMERThe industrial customer is generally defined as manufacturing, construction, mining, agriculture, fishing and forestry establishments, Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 01-39. The utility may classify industrial service using the SIC codes, or based on demand or annual usage exceeding some specified limit. The limit may be set by the utility based on the rate schedule of the utility.
INERTA material having no biological action.
INFILTRATIONMovement of water from the ground surface into the soil or rock through joints and pores.
INJECTION WELLA well into which fluids have been pumped, and from which fluids have been injected into an underground stratum to increase or maintain reservoir pressure.
INORGANIC SUBSTANCESubstances in which carbon-to-carbon bonds are absent. Mineral matter.
INSECTICIDESPesticides (see) toxic used to destroy or repel insects.
INSULATORInsulators sit between the conductor and the pole to prevent electricity 'leaking' to the ground, or to other power lines. They are made of glass, porcelain or polymers.
INTEGRAL RESERVEArea generally subject to specific environmental disposals in order to preserve plant and animal species living therein.
INTENSIVE FARMINGFarming characterised by high input use and that strives for maximum production, often at the expense of environmental considerations. (Source: European Environment Agency)
INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA)The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established in 1957 as an autonomous organization under the United Nations, serves as the world's foremost intergovernmental forum for scientific and technical co-operation in the peaceful use of nuclear technology.
INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON CIVIL LIABILITYINTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON CIVIL LIABILITY FOR OIL POLLUTION DAMAGE (1969)
The objectives of the Convention are to "ensure that adequate compensation is available to persons who suffer damage caused by pollution resulting from the escape or discharge of oil from ships" and to "standardize international rules and procedures for determining questions of liability and adequate compensation in such areas." The objectives of the Convention are to "ensure that adequate compensation is available to persons who suffer damage caused by pollution resulting from the escape or discharge of oil from ships" and to "standardize international rules and procedures for determining questions of liability and adequate compensation in such areas."