dcsimg

Glossary

Lacustrine
Pertaining to an environment of deposition in lakes, or an area having lakes. Because deposition of sediment in lakes can occur slowly and in relatively calm conditions, organic-rich source rocks can form in lacustrine environments.

Lagoon
A shallow stretch of seawater (or lakewater) near or communicating with the sea (or lake) and partly or completely separated from it by a low, narrow, elongate strip of land.

Lake
A body standing water found on the Earth’s continental land masses. The water in a lake is normally fresh. Also see eutrophic lake, mesotrophic lake, and oligotrophic lake. Eutrophic lake Lake that has an excessive supply of nutrients (see), mostly in the form of nitrates and phosphates Mesotrophic lake Lake with a moderate nutrient supply. Oligotrophic lake Lake with a low supply of nutrients (see) in its waters.

Land use
The way in which land is used, such as residential, commercial, institutional, parking, park or vacant.

Land Use Capability (LUC)
Land Use Capability (LUC) is a way of classifying land based on its capacity for permanent sustained production. This capacity depends largely on the physical qualities of the soil and the environment. Such factors include altitude, slope, geology, soil type, vegetation and erosion.

Land use planning
The systematic assessment of land and water potential, alternative patterns of land use and other physical, social and economic conditions, for the purpose of selecting and adopting land-use options which are most beneficial to land users without degrading the resources or the environment, together with the selection of measures most likely to encourage such land uses. Land-use planning may be at international, national, district (project, catchment), or local (village) levels. It includes participation by land users, planners and decision-makers and covers educational, legal, fiscal and financial measures. (Source: Environmental European Agency)

Landfill leachate
Water, which seeps into a landfill and, by doing so, extracts substances from the deposited wastes. The physical and chemical characteristics of the Leachate depend on the fill materials and the degradation processes taking place in the landfill. Leachate is a polluting substance.

Landscape
Traits, patterns, and structure of a specific geographic area, including its biological composition, its physical environment, and its anthropogenic or social patterns. An area where interacting ecosystems are grouped and repeated in similar form. (source: United States Environmental Protection Agency, Terms of Environment).

Lateral pipes
A section of natural gas pipeline that branches off from the mainline to connect with or serve a specific customer or group of customers.

Latitude
The angular distance in degrees of a point on the earth north or south of the equator.

Lava
Lava is molten rock that pours out of volcanoes or from cracks in the earth. It comes from deep in the earth where the heat is great. There, it is called magma. When lava first comes to the surface it is red-hot, reaching temperatures from 7 to 12 times hotter than boiling water. Lands that were once covered with lava often become quite fertile after weathering has broken the lava into fine soil. Some lavas, such as a glassy lava called perlite, are heated in furnaces. They expand into a frothy material used to manufacture lightweight concrete.

Leachate
Liquids that have percolated through a soil and that contain substances in solution or suspension.

Leaching
Washing out of soluble substances by water passing down through soil. Leaching occurs when more water falls on the soil than is lost by evaporation from the surface. Rainwater running through the soil dissolves mineral nutrients and other substances and carries them via ground water into water bodies.

Lead pollution
Lead has been used for many years as an additive to petrol to improve engine performance. When the petrol is burnt lead is emitted from the exhaust, and concern has focused on the possible health effects. Lead is known to be a poison which builds up in the body and may affect the development of children. Action has now been taken to reduce the amount of lead in petrol and as a result unleaded petrol was produced.

Leaded premium gasoline
Gasoline having an antiknock index (R+M/2) greater than 90 and containing more than 0.05 grams of lead or 0.005 grams of phosphorus per gallon. Antiknock index: The average of a motor gasoline’s or blending component’s RON (research octane number) and MON (motor octane number), sometimes written (R + M)/2.

Lentic water
Lake type waters that are not actively moving. Opposite of lotic (see).

Life boat
A small boat used for emergencies such as when the parent boat is sinking.

Lightering
Unloading cargo from large marine tankers into smaller tankers that can enter shallow-water ports. (see lighters)

Lighters
General name for a broad, flat-bottomed boat used in transporting cargo between a vessel and the shore. The distinction between a lighter and a barge (see) is more in the manner of use than in equipment. The term “lighter” refers to a short haul, generally in connection with loading and unloading operations of vessels in harbour while the term “barge” is more often used when the cargo is being carried to its destination over a long distance.

Limivorous
Feeding on mud or slime, as certain annelids (see), for the organic matter it contains.

Limnology
Scientific study of the life and phenomena of lakes, ponds and streams.

Liquefaction
Any process in which gas is converted from the gaseous to the liquid phase.

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
Gas that is liquefied under extremely cold temperatures and high pressure to facilitate storage or transportation in specially designed vessels.

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
A mixture of butane, propane and other light hydrocarbons (see) derived from refining crude oil. At normal temperatures it is a gas, but it can be cooled or subjected to pressure to facilitate storage and transportation.

Liquid effluent
Radiation generally considered “visible,” with wavelengths between 400 and 700nm. Optical components and applications often encompass radiation just below 400nm (ultraviolet) and just above 700nm (infrared).

Lithosphere
The Earth’s hard, outermost shell. It comprises the crust and the upper part of the mantle and is divided into a mosaic of 16 major slabs, or plates.

Lloyd’s register of shipping
An independent non-profit-making Society, controlled by the various sectors of the shipping industry.
Founded in 1760 to examine merchant ships and ‘classify’ them according to their condition. It undertakes surveys, classification of all vessels, and produces various annual publications, including Construction Rules for Steel Ships. The document yearly issued by Lloyd’s contains tonnage, age, build, nationalities, mode of power, condition of registered ships, latest voyage number, reported position, etc. In addition to its marine activities, the company has operations covering management systems, land-based industries, railways, and oil and gas.

Longitude
The angular distance east or west, between the meridian of a particular place on Earth and that of the Prime Meridian (located in Greenwich, England) expressed in degrees or time.

Lotic water
Running waters (streams, rivers, etc.).

Louse
Wingless parasitic insect (Pediculus), with a flat body and short legs.

LPG
A mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons, mainly propane and butane that change into liquid form under moderate pressure. LPG or propane is commonly used as a fuel for rural homes for space and water heating, as a fuel for barbecues and recreational vehicles, and as a transportation fuel. It is normally created as a by-product of petroleum refining and from natural gas production.

LPG carrier (Liquid Petroleum Gas carrier)
Ships that carry Liquefied Petroleum Gas, which means petroleum gas in liquid form. The gas is kept liquid by cooling it down or by pressure, or a combination of the two. Typical cargoes are propane or butadiene, which require very low temperature, typically below –40o C.

Lubricants
A substance used to reduce friction between bearing surfaces or as process materials either incorporated into other materials used as processing aids in the manufacturing of other products, or as carriers or other materials. Petroleum lubricants may be produced either from distillates or residues. Other substances may be added to impart or improve certain required properties. Does not include byproducts of lubricating oil refining such as aromatic extracts derived from solvent extraction or tars derived from deasphalting. Lubricants include all grades of lubricating oils from spindle oil to cylinder oil and those used in greases. Reporting categories include: Paraffinic – Includes all grades of bright stock and neutrals with a Viscosity Index > 75. Naphthenic – Includes all lubricating oil base stocks with a Viscosity Index < 75. Note: the criterion for categorizing the lubricants is based solely on the Viscosity Index of the stocks and is independent of crude sources and type of processing used to produce the oils. Exceptions – Lubricating oil base stocks that have been classified as naphthenic or paraffinic by a refiner may continue to be so categorized irrespective of the Viscosity Index criterion. Example: Unextracted paraffinic oils that would not meet the Viscosity Index test.

With the sponsorship of the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research
 
Eni S.p.A. - P.IVA 00905811006