How to measure the wind

A wind is described by two parameters: the strength (related to speed) and direction. We all know that the wind is not constant, as its strength and direction change.
The wind direction can be observed by simply using a weathercock.
In order to class the wind according to its direction people name it after the place the wind comes from. Sometimes the name refers to the geographical origin (Grecale if it comes from Greece; Libeccio if it comes from Libia, Scirocco if it comes from Siria). Some other times, like in the “Wind rose”, winds are referred to by using cardinal points (North-eastern wind, South-western wind).
The wind strength can be indicated either by measuring its speed, i.e. in knots that correspond to miles per hour (1 knot = 1 mile per hour = 1.85 km/h), or by the Francis Beaufort scale. Speed is measured by the anemometer, a simple wheel exposed to the strength of the wind to measure its rotation speed.
Cup anemometer
One of the most used anemometers is the cup anemometer, where the wind, blowing into the cups, makes them rotate around a vertical axis. An electric or mechanic meter measures the number of turns that take place in a certain time interval. By means of adequate calibration charts it is possible to calculate the wind speed.

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