Deposits and mines in Italy

In Italy most of the mines that existed at the beginning of 1900 have been closed. Quite large deposits of mercury (as cinnabar) are present on Mount Amiatawhose exploitation is finished in the 70s of last century, and fluorine minerals (fluorite) were extracted in Sardinia mines in Silius until few years ago. Instead, iron mines (located in Cogne, in Val D’Aosta region, on Elba island and Sardinia) and coal mines (in Sulcis area, Sardinia) have been abandoned due to the low concentration of minerals and high production costs when compared to other deposits abroad. More important is the production of the so-called “second-category” materials, like limestones, marble, granites, clays, travertine, sands, etc. In particular, Italy is the world-leading supplier of pumice stone, as its production accounts for half of the total world production. Extracted pumice stone mainly comes from Lipari. Moreover, Italy ranks second in Europe, just after Germany, in the production of raw steel and cement. Italy is one of the largest producers in the world of feldspathic minerals (silicates), with 4.7 million tons produced in 2015.
The exports of natural stones (above all marble) all around the world are very developed. Marble in Italy is located in many areas. The most important geographical areas for the production of white marble is Tuscany, specifically on Apuane Alps. Lazio, Lombardy, Puglia and Veneto are other very important areas for the extraction of coloured marble.

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