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Ice forms when water in the liquid state freezes. Freezing temperature depends on the content of salt dissolved in the water: at normal atmospheric pressure, it is 0° C for pure water, not greatly different for fresh water and it drops to -1.8°C in the case of sea water. When temperatures drop below freezing point, water turns into the solid state. This is true for water that flows freely on the Earth’s surface as also for stretches of water such as lakes, rivers, seas , and also for water trapped in wedges in rocks and in pores in the ground, where ice lenses and veins form. Running water, due to its movement, freezes more slowly than still water, for this reason it is easier in winter to see the formation of ice on the surface of small stretches of still water, while the waterways are not frozen.

subjects dealt with in Ice and glaciers

Ice

Since most of the Earth’s ice does not come from frozen pure water, the ice we see  generally consists of…

What glaciers are

The mass of ice that forms a glacier is not a static and homogeneous mass: the ice has different characteristics…

Ice tales

Observations of the front variations include monitoring changes in shape and position of the front of a glacier. Once, this…

Glaciation

Glaciations, periods of cold climate in which the glaciers all over the planet are characterized by a great expansion, and…

Glaciers, a resource

Glaciers in dry temperate regions supply a source of water which is very important for the economy of local rural…

special reports

  • 14 December 2011 / Water

    Centenary of the conquest of the South Pole

    The conquest of the South Pole The first centenary of a memorable feat, the conquest of the South Pole, will…

    6 December 2010 / Water

    Research in Antarctica

    A fascinated continent Antarctica is a continent with a very particular charm. It was the last to be discovered and…

    6 December 2010 / Water

    Life in Antarctica

    Moving in Antarctica How is it possible to live and work in Antarctica? Which sagacities must be used for a…

  • 5 February 2005 / Water

    Icebergs

    Vagabonds on the sea Last January, the media gave great importance to the news of the possible collision of a…

    15 April 2014 / Water

    How rich are we .... in blue gold?

    The blue planet: water availability in the world 24 December 1968, a date of historical importance. The Earth was photographed…

    26 February 2014 / Water

    How much water is on your plate?

    Still waters run deep! This proverb reminds us how many times we have heard popular proverbs about water, and how…

  • 24 February 2016 / Energy

    Renewable energy in Italy

    Renewable energy sources in Italy The GSE, Energy Services Operator, periodically publishes data and statistics on the renewable sources used…

    1 July 2007 / Energy

    Renewable energy in Nepal

    The resources of diversity Nepal is an extremely varied country, with a complex morphology.  It contains different ecosystems in a…

    4 March 2010 / Life

    Biotechnological cleaners

    Bacteria that "eat oil" In today’s society, more than 80% of human activities are closely connected to the production of…

  • 10 May 2008 / Air

    Bioindicators

    Monitoring the environment Ecologic research is more and more oriented towards an assessment of the quality of the environment and…

    8 July 2011 / Ecosystems

    Who's coming to dinner

    A shark in my hamburger Summer is finally here! As usual, we have waited for it all year long and…

    10 March 2006 / Water

    Environment biotech

    Biotechnology can be defined as the application of microbiology, genetic engineering and biochemistry for the treatment of waste materials by…

  • 14 December 2011 / Water

    Centenary of the conquest of the South Pole

    The conquest of the South Pole The first centenary of a memorable feat, the conquest of the South Pole, will…

    6 December 2010 / Water

    Research in Antarctica

    A fascinated continent Antarctica is a continent with a very particular charm. It was the last to be discovered and…

  • 6 December 2010 / Water

    Life in Antarctica

    Moving in Antarctica How is it possible to live and work in Antarctica? Which sagacities must be used for a…

    5 February 2005 / Water

    Icebergs

    Vagabonds on the sea Last January, the media gave great importance to the news of the possible collision of a…

  • 15 April 2014 / Water

    How rich are we .... in blue gold?

    The blue planet: water availability in the world 24 December 1968, a date of historical importance. The Earth was photographed…

    26 February 2014 / Water

    How much water is on your plate?

    Still waters run deep! This proverb reminds us how many times we have heard popular proverbs about water, and how…

  • 24 February 2016 / Energy

    Renewable energy in Italy

    Renewable energy sources in Italy The GSE, Energy Services Operator, periodically publishes data and statistics on the renewable sources used…

    1 July 2007 / Energy

    Renewable energy in Nepal

    The resources of diversity Nepal is an extremely varied country, with a complex morphology.  It contains different ecosystems in a…

  • 4 March 2010 / Life

    Biotechnological cleaners

    Bacteria that "eat oil" In today’s society, more than 80% of human activities are closely connected to the production of…

  • 14 December 2011 / Water

    Centenary of the conquest of the South Pole

    The conquest of the South Pole The first centenary of a memorable feat, the conquest of the South Pole, will…

  • 6 December 2010 / Water

    Research in Antarctica

    A fascinated continent Antarctica is a continent with a very particular charm. It was the last to be discovered and…

  • 6 December 2010 / Water

    Life in Antarctica

    Moving in Antarctica How is it possible to live and work in Antarctica? Which sagacities must be used for a…

  • 5 February 2005 / Water

    Icebergs

    Vagabonds on the sea Last January, the media gave great importance to the news of the possible collision of a…

  • 15 April 2014 / Water

    How rich are we .... in blue gold?

    The blue planet: water availability in the world 24 December 1968, a date of historical importance. The Earth was photographed…

  • 26 February 2014 / Water

    How much water is on your plate?

    Still waters run deep! This proverb reminds us how many times we have heard popular proverbs about water, and how…

  • 24 February 2016 / Energy

    Renewable energy in Italy

    Renewable energy sources in Italy The GSE, Energy Services Operator, periodically publishes data and statistics on the renewable sources used…

  • 1 July 2007 / Energy

    Renewable energy in Nepal

    The resources of diversity Nepal is an extremely varied country, with a complex morphology.  It contains different ecosystems in a…

  • 4 March 2010 / Life

    Biotechnological cleaners

    Bacteria that "eat oil" In today’s society, more than 80% of human activities are closely connected to the production of…

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    Ice and currents

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