Ice forms when water in the liquid state freezes. Freezing temperature depends on the content of salt dissolved in the water: at normal atmospheric pressure, it is 0° C for pure water, not greatly different for fresh water and it drops to -1.8°C in the case of sea water. When temperatures drop below freezing point, water turns into the solid state. This is true for water that flows freely on the Earth’s surface as also for stretches of water such as lakes, rivers, seas , and also for water trapped in wedges in rocks and in pores in the ground, where ice lenses and veins form. Running water, due to its movement, freezes more slowly than still water, for this reason it is easier in winter to see the formation of ice on the surface of small stretches of still water, while the waterways are not frozen.

subjects dealt with in Ice and glaciers

acqua_400x225_0012_il ghiaccio

Ice

Since most of the Earth’s ice does not come from frozen pure water, the ice we see  generally consists of…

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What glaciers are

The mass of ice that forms a glacier is not a static and homogeneous mass: the ice has different characteristics…

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Ice tales

Observations of the front variations include monitoring changes in shape and position of the front of a glacier. Once, this…

acqua_400x225_0011_le glaciazionioni

Glaciation

Glaciations, periods of cold climate in which the glaciers all over the planet are characterized by a great expansion, and…

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Glaciers, a resource

Glaciers in dry temperate regions supply a source of water which is very important for the economy of local rural…

special reports

  • 14 December 2011 / Water

    Centenary of the conquest of the South Pole

    The conquest of the South Pole The first centenary of a memorable feat, the conquest of the South Pole, will…

    6 December 2010 / Water

    Research in Antarctica

    A fascinated continent Antarctica is a continent with a very particular charm. It was the last to be discovered and…

    6 December 2010 / Water

    Life in Antarctica

    Moving in Antarctica How is it possible to live and work in Antarctica? Which sagacities must be used for a…

  • 5 February 2005 / Water

    Icebergs

    Vagabonds on the sea Last January, the media gave great importance to the news of the possible collision of a…

    15 April 2014 / Water

    How rich are we .... in blue gold?

    The blue planet: water availability in the world 24 December 1968, a date of historical importance. The Earth was photographed…

    26 February 2014 / Water

    How much water is on your plate?

    Still waters run deep! This proverb reminds us how many times we have heard popular proverbs about water, and how…

  • 21 February 2013 / Energy

    Renewable energy in Italy

    Renewable energy sources in Italy The GSE (Gestore dei Servizi Energetici), the Italian energy services management authority, periodically publishes data…

    1 July 2007 / Energy

    Renewable energy in Nepal

    The resources of diversity Nepal is an extremely varied country, with a complex morphology.  It contains different ecosystems in a…

    4 March 2010 / Life

    Biotechnological cleaners

    Bacteria that "eat oil" In today’s society, more than 80% of human activities are closely connected to the production of…

  • 14 December 2011 / Water

    Centenary of the conquest of the South Pole

    The conquest of the South Pole The first centenary of a memorable feat, the conquest of the South Pole, will…

    6 December 2010 / Water

    Research in Antarctica

    A fascinated continent Antarctica is a continent with a very particular charm. It was the last to be discovered and…

  • 6 December 2010 / Water

    Life in Antarctica

    Moving in Antarctica How is it possible to live and work in Antarctica? Which sagacities must be used for a…

    5 February 2005 / Water

    Icebergs

    Vagabonds on the sea Last January, the media gave great importance to the news of the possible collision of a…

  • 15 April 2014 / Water

    How rich are we .... in blue gold?

    The blue planet: water availability in the world 24 December 1968, a date of historical importance. The Earth was photographed…

    26 February 2014 / Water

    How much water is on your plate?

    Still waters run deep! This proverb reminds us how many times we have heard popular proverbs about water, and how…

  • 14 December 2011 / Water

    Centenary of the conquest of the South Pole

    The conquest of the South Pole The first centenary of a memorable feat, the conquest of the South Pole, will…

  • 6 December 2010 / Water

    Research in Antarctica

    A fascinated continent Antarctica is a continent with a very particular charm. It was the last to be discovered and…

  • 6 December 2010 / Water

    Life in Antarctica

    Moving in Antarctica How is it possible to live and work in Antarctica? Which sagacities must be used for a…

from the Multimedia section

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    Ice and currents

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    Captured water

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    Ice tales

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    Careser Glacier mass balance

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    Ice shapes

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    Scheme of glacial cave systems

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curiosities

  • Glacial surges

    Some glaciers are subject to sudden “expansions” called surges: suddenly, without warning and with incredible rapidity, the speed of the…

    Glacier lake outburst floods

    Glacier floods, also known with the Icelandic term, jökulhlaup, are sudden outbursts of enormous quantities of water from within the…

    Ephemeral lakes

    Even big lakes can form on the surface, inside or at the contact with a glacier. Due to the ice…

  • Rock glaciers

    In the mountains, also in our Alps, in detrital screes at higher altitudes, it usually can be observed that part…

    Speleologists in the ice

    The fascination of the glacial caves inspired an explorer to write, “ The shapes of glacial caves are spectacular: smooth,…

    Ice and fire

    Iceland is characterized by numerous ice-sheets, among which the vast  Vatnajökull (jökull  means glacier in Icelandic); with a surface area…

  • City of ice

    The Marmolada glacier in the Dolomites has become famous, notwithstanding its small size, due to a historical fact, that pointed…

    How to become a glaciologist

    A glaciologist is a researcher who studies ice and glaciers: this study can consider different aspects, such as the movement…

    Sea in love

    In Italy, the "mare in amore" phenomenon occurs very often: the part of the sea coast where this occurs is…

  • Glacial surges

    Some glaciers are subject to sudden “expansions” called surges: suddenly, without warning and with incredible rapidity, the speed of the…

    Glacier lake outburst floods

    Glacier floods, also known with the Icelandic term, jökulhlaup, are sudden outbursts of enormous quantities of water from within the…

  • Ephemeral lakes

    Even big lakes can form on the surface, inside or at the contact with a glacier. Due to the ice…

    Rock glaciers

    In the mountains, also in our Alps, in detrital screes at higher altitudes, it usually can be observed that part…

  • Speleologists in the ice

    The fascination of the glacial caves inspired an explorer to write, “ The shapes of glacial caves are spectacular: smooth,…

    Ice and fire

    Iceland is characterized by numerous ice-sheets, among which the vast  Vatnajökull (jökull  means glacier in Icelandic); with a surface area…

  • Glacial surges

    Some glaciers are subject to sudden “expansions” called surges: suddenly, without warning and with incredible rapidity, the speed of the…

  • Glacier lake outburst floods

    Glacier floods, also known with the Icelandic term, jökulhlaup, are sudden outbursts of enormous quantities of water from within the…

  • Ephemeral lakes

    Even big lakes can form on the surface, inside or at the contact with a glacier. Due to the ice…

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