Many types of breeding

Factors as climate (for example tropical or desert), as the structure of lands (for example flat or mountainous), as the availability of resources (for example water) but also other elements as cultures and local economies make breeding systems acquire different forms in terms of its dimension as well as type of techniques used. In the world there are many types of breeding that are very different from one another; let’s just think about how different is nomad horse and yak breeding in Mongolia from breeding of bovines in our farmsteads! The different existing breeding systems in the world can be classified, according to FAO, in two macro-types according to the main aim of their system. The first type regards all mixed systems of production where agriculture and breeding coexist: practically, breeding is both intensive and extensive and is practised along with farming of irrigated or non-irrigated soils (that are nourished by rainfall). Bovines, ovines, caprines, pigs, poultry and laying hens are raised. Agricultural enterprises structured in this way produce, besides food for their own consumption or for trade, also nourishment for animals (both in terms of fodder and agricultural waste). Raising animals provides meat, eggs and milk but in some parts of the world, as Asia for example, animals also offer an efficient help for work in the fields. These systems are widespread in some areas of Northern America, Europe, Southern Asia and Africa. An example are family-run agricultural enterprises in Europe as farmsteads in the Po Valley.
The second type regards, instead, exclusive animal production systems that is all those system whose only aim is breeding. In particular, this system is characterised as follows:
Intensive breeding systems “without land”.
These are intensive production systems that work as a real industrial factory: most of the eggs and meat we eat are produced in this way. Raised animals generally are pigs, chickens, laying hens and sometimes also bovines. These breeding farms “without land” are mainly widespread in Northeast America, Europe and Asia, more generally in rich and highly populated areas where the request for meat is very high.
Extensive “pasture” breeding systems
These are extensive production systems that, thanks to the presence of broad uncultivated lands, allow animals to pasture freely: with this system are raised mainly bovines to produce meat and milk, ovines and caprines. Extensive breeding is widespread mainly in Central and Southern America, in particular, Argentina, Brazil and Peru but also in Australia and Europe.

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