Animals’ behaviour

All organisms provide themselves with food and water, often they manage to avoid being eaten by other organisms, they reproduce themselves (they follow courtship and mating rituals) and finally they take care of their offspring. All these activities are very important for  animals’ survival and for species success.
Behaviour characteristics are subject to evolution: normally the behaviour varies among single individuals, and behaviours are more advantageous than others. Some variations are determined by genes, and the most successful ones will be predominant.
A well-organized society for bees
Bees live in societies made up of thousands of individuals who have a “queen”, the only bee capable of laying eggs (up to 50,000 in one year). The queen can live for up to five years, while the other “worker” bees live for only a bit more than a month. When the community becomes too numerous, the queen bee and some worker bees leave their beehive and build a new one. The abandoned beehive keeps functioning with the bees that have remained in there and a new queen. The worker bees have the task to transport honey and pollen from the reserve cells to the larva, produce wax to build the beehive and look for nectar and pollen.
Mole rats’ society
Mole rats are the only vertebrates with a social system that is similar to the insects’. They live in Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia. In each colony only one dominant female (queen rat) and one or few males reproduce. The others deal with food collection and tunnel maintenance.
Power hierarchies among wolves
Within wolf packs there is a power hierarchy that is valid both for males and females. Subordinate wolves pay their respect to the dominant individuals (the only ones that reproduce) through some typical behaviours. The rest of the pack takes care of the babies, of the lair and provide with the food.
Defence of the territory
Many invertebrates keep close to their birthplace and occupy a well-defined area, of varying shape and size. Male antelope stays in the middle of his territory, which is a circle of 15 metres of diameter and is surrounded by similar territories, defended by other males. The females expresses her preference for a male by entering inside his territory. The fiddler crab has a big chela by which he makes particular sounds that attract females and keeps other males away.
Howler monkeys define their territory by screaming. Also fish living between rocks are used to defending their territory.

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Facts